Our many years of experience with production Electric Vehicles, in the UK and across Europe, together with our empirical, practical experience providing charging solutions, has guided the marketing of EVs, how they are deployed and how they are recharged safely. Here are some of our publications.
"Electric Vehicles and Charging Infrastructure", Civic Energy, Vol. 1
We contributed an article on EVs to the first volume of Civic Energy: a publication helping the public sector to meet Climate Change targets. See civicenergy.co.uk for more info and to subscribe to future issues.
"Safety Issues concerning Electric Vehicle charging stations using conventional UK socket outlets"
This document, first published in 2007 as "Safety issues concerning Electric Vehicle charging stations in London," has been referenced in the shift away from the use of the normal UK standard socket for recharging Electric Vehicles. We have also been consulted by the electrical safety agencies concerned with introducing EV charging in Ireland and Hong Kong: two territories which also use the same plug-socket system. It has also influenced the choice of charging rate for a leading new EV model to maintain safety and avoid problems highlighted in the document.
Extract: "The adoption of the standard UK plug-socket system for the recharging of EVs may, at first, seem quite reasonable, practical and simple to implement, but encouraging manufacturers and drivers to use charging cables fitted with a standard UK plug will no doubt mean that the same charging cable will be used at other locations, such as at home in the case of private vehicles or at a works base for commercial vehicles. Due to the nature of UK electricity supplies, the choice of the standard plug-socket system poses serious safety issues for charging EVs, particularly outdoors and by 'untrained persons' such as members of the public. These issues relate to the protection from electric shock of the users themselves and third parties in the vicinity of the vehicle being charged, which are often very public areas, by effective 'earthing' and supplementary protection."
"Safety issues concerning portable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) for recharging Electric Vehicles in the United Kingdom and Europe"
This document, first published in 2011, describes issues concerning the use of the portable charging cables supplied with many new vehicles, when used on particular types of British (and some European) electrical installations. It should be read in conjunction with the above document.
Extract: "The majority of production Electric Vehicles (EVs) appearing on the roads of Britain (and Europe) are of Japanese origin: the Nissan LEAF, Mitsubishi i-MiEV, Peugeot iOn & Citroën C-Zero, the last two of which are versions of the i-MiEV built by Mitsubishi for PSA (Peugeot/Citroën) All of these cars are presently supplied (in most European markets) with a portable charging cable with an ‘inline’ charge control device manufactured by Panasonic, with the SAE J1772 coupler for the vehicle end and the appropriate national plug to suit the market into which the vehicle is sold. Whilst the intention of such portable ‘Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment’ (EVSE) is to provide a degree of safety by controlling the current draw and continuously verifying the connection to the vehicle, there still exist shock hazards in some markets due to the conventions employed in providing the electricity supplies and ‘thermal’ issues with some vehicles due to the choice of current rating."